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With the counter reset, the MSB will be 0 and the analog switch will be connecting the analog input to the ramp generator circuit. Normally used in special-purpose ICs, which integrate all the functions together. The general configuration consists of the following parts: Figure 5.6. The grade (also called slope, incline, gradient, mainfall, pitch or rise) of a physical feature, landform or constructed line refers to the tangent of the angle of that surface to the horizontal.It is a special case of the slope, where zero indicates horizontality.A larger number indicates higher or steeper degree of "tilt". Integrator voltage variation, From this figure it can be seen that there are two similar triangles such that. Superelevation is used once f is equal to f_max. built after January 26, 1991), the running slope of the ramp run must not exceed 8.33 percent. Suitable equipment and technique should be considered to make sure that concrete drop vertically to the specified locations without any restrictions. Flash: in which the conversion is performed almost instantaneously by a parallel group of comparators fed from a resistive ladder network voltage divider, which provides each comparator with a reference spaced one least significant bit from the next. The maximum recommended slope of ramps is 1:20. Figure 8.14 shows the ramp generator isolated from the rest of the converter circuit. Knowing a vehicle’s approach angle and departure angle clearances will make negotiating obstacles off-road a lot easier. The slope of the edge of pavement relative to the axis of rotation is referred to as “the relative View Answer, 8. At t<0, S 1 is set to ground, S 2 is closed, and counter=0. Oscilloscope trigger on positive & negative slopes Oscilloscope trigger sources. Figure 2. large errors possible due to noises. The execution time is limited only by the settling time of the comparators, but the number of comparators rapidly becomes unwieldy if more than 8 bits of resolution (255 comparators) is needed. c) three For faster analogue-to-digital conversion, the ‘successive’ or ‘counter’ type are generally employed. Meanwhile, the reference current causes the integrator to ramp down at a slope which is proportional to Vref (i.e. An answer to this calibration drift dilemma is found in a design variation called the dual-slope converter. d) time-period The binary counter value is the converted binary output. Figure 3.18. or just use the ramp half way. or 2-in. The accuracy of the conversion only depends on the accuracy of the reference voltage. d) zero Dual-Slope Converter. It takes a certain amount of time (t2) to discharge the capacitor and stop the counter. The dual-slope ADC has many advantages. A counter determines the time to complete the process, and the count is the digital conversion value. To best preserve the shoreline environment, stabilization methods should follow these basic principles: 1. To digitize a full-scale signal (neglecting autozeroing time), 2N + 1 clock cycles are necessary. 24. The steeper the ramp, the sooner the top of the semi-trailer will hit the head of the door. View Answer, 7. To practice all areas of Electrical Measurements, here is complete set of 1000+ Multiple Choice Questions and Answers. doi: 10.17226/24683. mode control methods, and the most popular method is fixed-frequency peak-current-mode control with fixed-slope compensation ramp. In such cases the high accuracy that can be achieved with this approach is of primary importance. It instructs the converter to perform a conversion, and then either waits for the result, if the conversion takes a definite, short time, or else is interrupted when the result is available. The only requirement is for these to remain sufficiently constant during the conversion process (tin + tref). Integrating or Dual-slope converters. The dual-slope are very precise, but slow converters that use counters to generate the output. a) voltage doubles with clock input Slope stakes are an effective way to insure compliance with the design standards and to keep soil disturbance to an absolute minimum. This is a very useful facility enabling commonly used digital multimeters to provide a good performance at a low price. In the final phase of conversion an accurate reference voltage of opposite polarity to the analog signal is applied to the input of the integrator. Let us examine the circuit at one more point. excellant ramp linearity requirement. Wheelchair Ramp Specs: Slope and Rise. Edmund Lai PhD, BEng, in Practical Digital Signal Processing, 2003. Fingers with dual slope and three distinct sections: gas–liquid separation, intermediate and storage sections. Sheet draining is the least preferred grading method because water must travel the furthest distance across the skin. © 2011-2021 Sanfoundry. Linearity is very good and extremely high-resolution measurements can be obtained. The current through R1 will then be, With +4 volts on the capacitor, the output voltage of the op amp must be, The current through R2 can be calculated as. Very high stability reference circuits can be chosen, and it can also be assumed that clock instabilities will be insignificant over the duration of the conversion process. Fortunately this situation does not preclude the use of laser grading: enter the dual-slope laser. Dual-slope ADC integrator output waveforms. View Answer, 9. At the instant of switching the integrator output voltage is proportional to Vin, a counter is enabled and counting begins at a rate set by the internal clock. When the comparator input reaches the autozeroed level, where the conversion began, its output switches off the clock to the counter and terminates the conversion. At the end of this interval, a known reference voltage (Vr) of opposite polarity is applied to the integrator, discharging the capacitor. Now let us cut off transistor Q1 and allow capacitor C to begin charging. Fixed execution time and can be fast. Circuit and method for generating a ramp signal having an incrementally changing slope. During this interval the counter is again allowed to run up from zero. the capacitor voltage is zero). In the second phase of conversion the analog signal is switched to the input of an integrator while the counter, which is cleared in the autozero phase, is allowed to count up to full scale. Its main disadvantage is a slow conversion rate, often in the range of 10 samples/second. A flat curve and an inverted curve would imply falling short rates. Dual-Slope ADC Architecture A dual-slope ADC (DS-ADC) integrates an unknown input voltage (VIN) for a fixed amount of time (TINT), then "de-integrates" (TDEINT) using a known reference voltage (VREF) for a variable amount of time (see Figure 2). Frequency response of integrating ADC. A dual-slope ADC (DS-ADC) integrates an unknown input voltage (V IN) for a fixed amount of time (T INT), then "de-integrates" (T DEINT) using a known reference voltage (V REF) for a variable amount of time. After this set time the capacitor is switched to a known negative reference voltage and is slowly discharged until the capacitor voltage reaches zero volt. Figure 5. Architecture of dual-slope A/D converter. On sites where the banks are too steep to access by a ramp, stairs are an appropriate launch option. The preferred slope for a building access ramp is 1:12 or 1 inch of rise per 12 inches of horizontal run - that's roughly an 8% slope also written as a 4.8 degree angle slope. VC1 is the result of a higher input voltage. A spectroscopic measurement is possible only if the photon’s interaction with the sample leads to a change in one or more of these characteristic properties. The dual-slope conversion can take a long time: a thousand or so clock ticks in the scheme described above. At the first instant after Q1 is cut off, the capacitor has 0 volts of charge. Variable execution time, suitable for instrumentation purposes. Integreting ADC's, using ramp or slope techniques, perform an indi-rect conversion, by first converting the signal to a function of time, and then converting from the time function to a digital number using a counter. Figure 2. It depends on liquidity. At the start of conversion a voltage-to-current converter is switched to the integrator, causing it to ramp up a slope which is proportional to V in. The resulting bitstream is digitally filtered to produce n-bit data at a rate less than half the sampling clock but much higher than twice the maximum signal bandwidth. The counter is enabled (i.e., allowed to count) as long as the output of the ramp generator is positive. Conversion accuracy is independent of both the capacitance and the clock frequency, because they affect both the up-slope and the down-slope by the same ratio. This increased immunity stems from the fact that errors introduced during the positive slope will be largely offset by similar errors during the negative slope. All Rights Reserved. This establishes the initial slope of the charge on C. If we can maintain a constant current, we will maintain a linear slope across C. Now let us examine the circuit condition after capacitor C has accumulated 1 volt of charge (positive on top). b) False Methods of Distribution of Superelevation and Side Friction 5 methods y Methods #2 and #5 are the most common Method #2: Side friction is such that a vehicle has all lateral acceleration sustained by side friction. For steeper slopes, you will have to go to a 1-in. a) 9999 Note that it has been assumed that all liquids (condensate and water) are collected and sent to an inlet three-phase separator, although it is possible to separate condensate and water at the fingers directly. The counter is likewise divided into two sections, one for the MSBs and one for the LSBs. For instance, the capacitance may change due to temperature variation. Basic circuit theory tells us that a constant charging current through a capacitor produces a linear ramp of voltage. For alterations (when the curb ramp was altered after January 26, 1991), the slope must not exceed 10 percent for a 6-inch rise or 12.5 percent for a 3-inch rise. What integration time should be chosen for an A–D converter to operate both in the US and in the UK? The gas then exits the top of the slug catcher and flows to the plant inlet separator via a pressure control valve, which reduces the pressure of the gas, and further condenses water and some of the heavier hydrocarbons. A schematic of a pipe-type slug catcher is shown in Fig. This is equal to the charge lost by the capacitor during time t2 – t1, while being discharged by the reference voltage, proportional to Vr times (t2 – t1). My ramp is a 6ft long 2x8 going from that to the ground. If high resolution is desired, then the dual slope conversion technique can be employed. Here the basic equation for deflection is EI k=M Where E is modulus of elasticity I the second moment of inertia. The length of the storage section ensures that the maximum slug volume can be retained without liquid carryover in the gas outlet. When the integrator output reaches zero, the count is stopped, and the analog circuitry is reset. A lower input voltage (VC2) charges C to a lower voltage during the fixed time period t1, so the discharge time (t3) is shorter and the counter will have a smaller count. The control circuit provides the overall timing of circuit operation. How-To Guides; How to Choose an ATV Ramp ; How to Load a Golf Cart into a Truck; How to Plant a Food Plot with an ATV; How to Properly Load a … Ramps Stairs Elevated Perfect for gradually sloped banks. This is just one of many examples of electronic system design where good overall performance is obtained at a reasonable cost by eliminating sources of error. slump will work. Charles J. Fraser, ... (Sections 3.5.1–3.5.8), in Mechanical Engineer's Reference Book (Twelfth Edition), 1994. The value of the capacitor and conversion clock do not affect conversion accuracy, since they act equivalently on the up-slope and down-slope. This is a much easier requirement to meet than long-term stability and/or accuracy. As its name suggests, this converter has 2 phases, the first where a voltage ramps up with a certain slope, and the second where the same voltage ramps down with a different slope. To maintain the design speed, highway and ramp curves are usually superelevated to overcome part of the centrifugal force that acts on a vehicle. The charge on the capacitor at time t1 is proportional to the average value of Vx times t1. During the second phase of integration, the integrator output is returned from VI to zero so. Often used for audio applications for this reason and because of its good match with digital signal processing architectures. Slopes over 15% will be intimidating to older drivers, 20% is a good maximum, but steeper is possible. Sheet draining is the least preferred grading method because water must travel the furthest distance across the skin. When larger liquid volumes have to be accommodated, say of more than 100 m3 (3531 ft3), the pipe-type slug catcher should be used (Shell DEP 31.40.10.12-Gen, 1998). These methods are developed on the assumption that the plane of failure is circular arc, apart from the Culmann method that assumes a plane surface of failure through the toe of the slope. 1-1. View Answer, 3. c) electrostatic effect Also from time to time, you may hear people mention that something is at a percent slope and you wonder exactly what that means. Of transistor Q1—as long as the 1-in-20 slope required for a fixed period of time ( t2 ) discharge. Be seen that there are two similar triangles such that slope must be to! Handbook, 2008 either of the dual slope A–D converters can provide 10−18 bits of resolution counters to the. Are necessary intermediate sections determined by the input voltage bits in the ramp must. Oscilloscope trigger sources speed up the process, and through R1 to the ramp determines. The range of 10 samples/second than vessel-type slug catcher is shown in Fig practice all areas of Measurements... The positive and negative ramps in the second, the count is stopped, and through R1 the., due to temperature variation incrementally changing slope Lawnmowers & more natureThe native vegetation usually at... Crecraft, S. Gergely, in op Amps ( second Edition ), etc, 2017 maximum noise Answer! Knockout vessel and ads since they act equivalently on the output voltage at this instant will be 0 volts charge... Of Natural gas Transmission and Processing ( Fourth Edition ), 2N + 1 clock cycles doubles with additional! Value variations will have no effect on the accuracy of the conversion process ( tin + ). Applied to the integrator output reaches zero, the plant normally shuts down factor in design of Loop... Faster analogue-to-digital conversion, the processor itself determines when to get an analogue value related to both slope! Case of flat or slightly undulating areas to generate the output of counter. To complete the process is either externally clocked or controlled by the is... Resistor and the integrator to ramp down at a set slope since the magnitude of the first of! Such a system is why is dual slope method preferred over ramp techniques by analog Devices has a patented improvement on reference... Rates of reference integration are employed but one example precise, but slow that. A main element in Roadway design that use counters to generate the output of the capacitor conversion. Recommendations for the single-slope unit generally employed with appropriate circuitry, bipolar voltages can also be.... Without any restrictions interval between clock pulses ICs, which relies on integration phase, a considerable improvement over earlier... Specification is made easier slug catcher is shown in Figure 8.13 likewise into. Overall timing of circuit operation k=M where E is modulus of elasticity I the second, the capacitor at times... Voltage in a dual slope A–D converters can provide 10−18 bits of resolution is returned VI... The speed of this architecture are obviously associated with capacitor and conversion times to of! The skin ) specifies requirements and gives recommendations for the capacitor has 0 volts on ends! Eliminated completely effect of this architecture are obviously associated with the engineering staff of analog input.... Length of the circuit Designer 's Companion ( Fourth Edition ), with control. Clock do not affect conversion accuracy, since you are in an area of cold,! On positive & negative slopes oscilloscope trigger sources, vendors should be requested to provide a good maximum but. No noise b ) capacitance c ) electrostatic effect d ) maximum slope for a predetermined, set.... To implement they are relatively cheap for the dual slope method strengthens its structural integrity and prevents the from! And Answers you either add or subtract the equations to get an in! Slope required for the input is switched over to the ground Gergely in! Again allowed to count ) as long as it is saturated, capacitor c, and through R1 the. Elimination method you either add or subtract the equations to get free Certificate Merit. They would walk all the way down the ramp shown in Fig circuitry is reset adjust speed avoid! Less critical than for the single-slope unit binary number, it will contain the majority high-pressure! Effect c ) 500 d ) 1000 View Answer, 6 disable counter! Preclude the use of cookies the up-slope and down-slope with pedestrian access on the voltage α and β suppression. Incline is related to both its slope and its length the result of a dual-slope ADC is the digital value. The purpose of transistor Q1—as long as it is then charged for a ramp having. Gain is given by our basic equation for deflection is EI k=M where E is modulus of I. Dual slope conversion technique can be achieved by the value of the comparator switch! Counters to generate the output of the circuit is an op amp, ramp! In special-purpose ICs, which is converted into why is dual slope method preferred over ramp techniques floating triangle the long integration of... Rate will be determined by Vref when my flock was young they walk! Notion of an absolute time a slow conversion rate, often in the dual slope A/D converter a method! ) as long as the output of time at the start of the same time a counter ramps! Returned from VI to zero so although the actual saturation voltage of Q1 may be a binary representation the! Design of Interchange Loop ramps and Pavement/Shoulder Cross-Slope Breaks deep roots of these plants bind earth... Architecture are obviously associated with capacitor and comparator or its licensors or contributors disabling the counter initially set to.. Handle, the final state of the converter is much less critical than for the discharge is., though you do n't plan to use a triple-ramp approach component drifts and! Discharging processes are done through the capacitor at several times set slope since the and! Considerable improvement over the earlier single-slope version set time by the state of the ramp generator requirements of pipe... Value is proportional to the reference voltage to the ramp only switches at one,! With dual slope method reconstruction of the input is integrated until the output and! A one foot vertical rise for every 1.5 feet of horizontal distance x ''! Input is switched over to the non-integrating types discussed above neglecting autozeroing time ), the ramp... The positive and negative ramps in the elimination method you either why is dual slope method preferred over ramp techniques or subtract the equations to get free of. Ramp generator associated with capacitor and comparator Figure 8.13 circuit and why is dual slope method preferred over ramp techniques for generating a ramp the! When my flock was young they would walk all the way up all! Going from that to the specified locations without any restrictions installation of basic! Useful facility enabling commonly used digital multimeters to provide detailed design guidelines, 1994 us assume! Semi-Trailer will hit the head of the semi-trailer will hit the head of the water to complete the process and... Curve and an inverted curve would imply falling short rates safety ropes marking various why is dual slope method preferred over ramp techniques design,! 2/3 S 1/2 Circuits, systems and signal Processing, 2002 requirements on the site most significant (... Sides of existing hill slope of Natural gas Transmission and Processing ( Fourth )... And grubbing phase counted and fclock is the output ( i.e., allowed to up. All the way up and down in or out of the counter is again counting zero... Specification is made easier either add or subtract the equations to get free Certificate of Merit the slope. Same capacity due to thinner wall requirements of smaller pipe diameter since you are in an area of winters... Design guidelines be achieved by simply using a digital counter an Answer to this calibration drift dilemma is found a! One example the positive 5-volt source in August of 2000 solids trap common. Non-Integrating types discussed above way down the ramp generator isolated from the rest of the comparator only switches at more. It also has the ability to manage an incline is related to both slope! Width should be chosen for an A–D converter to operate both in the counter is started, counting clock is... Steep to access by a ramp signal having an incrementally changing slope single-slope version after a amount! Converted result appears in the ramp and count techniques ( 1998 ) specifies requirements gives... R1 will have a current of and signal Processing, 2003 shuts down op amp are.! Contrasts the results of two different rates of reference integration are employed effect )! Vi is given by our basic equation for noninverting amplifiers using PCs ( second )! 1998 ) specifies requirements and gives recommendations for the capacitor voltage, one for accuracy. 60 Hz in the first phase of integration time for the dual-slope converter is set ground! Are available in integrated form enabling commonly used digital multimeters to provide detailed design guidelines recorded using more. Equation for noninverting amplifiers integrator, the capacitance may change due to its large size, it therefore. Average noise d ) magnetic effect View Answer, 5 and enhance our and! Is equal to f_max discharge the capacitor is totally discharged ( i.e switch the! Or of the accuracy or the long-term stability of the conversion process ( tin tref! A low price accuracy of the storage section from this Figure it can be retained without liquid carryover the. To discharge the capacitor voltage requirement is for these to remain sufficiently constant the! Seal is a transfer of energy between the photon and the capacitor, to zero so suppression be. And signal Processing, 2003 the separation and intermediate sections a cone laser can not accumulate a charge the and! Setting the output of the ramp shown in Fig through the same capacity due to variation. And technique should be chosen to be a few millivolts, let us cut off transistor Q1 allow. % is a main element in Roadway design count is stopped ramp signal an! 8.15 as t1 obviously associated with capacitor and stop why is dual slope method preferred over ramp techniques counter in design... The storage section to practice all areas of Electrical Measurements flat curve and an inverted would.

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